Monetary travails The single European currency, the euro, was officially adopted by 11 member states in At the same time, technological investment is often expensive and commercially risky. Communication is made easier as more and more people start using mobile phones and the internet.
The EU regional policy starts to transfer huge sums of money to create jobs and infrastructure in poorer areas. People are concerned about how to protect the environment and also how Europeans can act together when it comes to security and defence matters.
In the EU gains three more new members: The year saw the debt crisis worsen in Greece and Spain, while the election of a Socialist government in France left Germany isolated as the chief advocate of austerity within the eurozone.
Fears were expressed in some quarters that established EU members would see a huge influx of immigrants from former communist states seeking better job and benefit prospects. The last right-wing dictatorships in Europe come to an end with the overthrow of the Salazar regime in Portugal in and the death of General Franco of Spain in The charter was dealt a severe blow in May and June when it was spurned by French and Dutch voters.
Previously, energy projects were funded by the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development FP7which ran from to Energy companies on their own may not deliver technological breakthroughs quickly enough.
It also laid down penalties for members failing to control budget deficits. The short, yet brutal, Arab-Israeli war of October results in an energy crisis and economic problems in Europe.
Crucially, Maastricht established the timetable for economic and monetary union and specified the economic and budgetary criteria which would determine when countries were ready to join.
By the end of the summer the indebtedness of Spain, Italy and Cyprus was also becoming a cause for concern. EU citizenship was brought into being for the first time, allowing people from member countries to move freely between member states.
As ofthe European Coal and Steel Community begins to unite European countries economically and politically in order to secure lasting peace. The s are dominated by a cold war between east and west.
Austria, Finland and Sweden.
Cities using technological solutions to improve the management and efficiency of the urban environment. In the Single European Act is signed. France and Germany sought eurozone tax harmonisation, while Britain demanded safeguards for its own financial sector.
They also agree joint control over food production, so that everybody now has enough to eat - and soon there is even surplus agricultural produce.
The number of Commissioners will be reduced inso that not every member-state will have its own Commissioner. Other key issues Supporters of the influx of new member states saw enlargement as the best way of building economic and political bonds between the peoples of Europe in order to end the divisions of the past.Overview.
We are leading a breakthrough EU H project, creating a solution that will help users/students find what they need not just in OER repositories, but across all open educational resources on the web. based on the analysis of relevant factors. Creation: Large, small and medium-sized universities have tacit knowledge that can be.
The European Union, or EU, describes itself as a family of democratic European countries, committed to working together for peace and prosperity. The organisation oversees co-operation among its members in diverse areas, including trade, the environment, transport and employment.
The EU promotes. European Union–Developing Country FTAs: Overview and Analysis JOSEPH F. FRANCOIS structures of recent free-trade agreements (FTAs) between the European Union and developing countries, surveys the main factors determining their economic eﬀects, and presents quantitative simulations of the eﬀects of these agreements.
creation. The European Union developed in a series of steps over four decades, leading to its creation in The History of the European Union. Search the site GO. History & Culture. European History Overview of Historical European Overseas Empires.
Factors leading to the creation of the AEI at the University of Pittsburgh are described and a detailed overview of the contents of the AEI and their sources is provided, including official EU documents and a wealth of grey literature about the EU.
Electronic access to documents and publications on the European Union: The role of the. The European Union (EU) is a unification of 27 member states united to create a political and economic community throughout Europe.
Though the idea of the EU might sound simple at the outset, the European Union has a rich history and a unique organization, both of which aid in its current success.Download